Yellow pine is one of the most important types of timber in the construction industry due to its high strength, stiffness and appealing appearance. It is used to frame houses, for roofing, and more because it is so structurally sound. Yellow pine is very dense and yet light weight and resists warping. There are four types of pine species that together are commercially classified as Southern Yellow Pine (SYP).
Species: loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), long leaf pine (Pinus palustris), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and slash pine (Pinus eliottii).
Other Names: Pine, Southern Yellow Pine, SYP, Southern Pine.
Yellow Pine Origin: United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Kentucky, Delaware, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Missouri, Tennessee, North Carolina, New Jersey, South Carolina, Maryland, West Virginia.
Appearance: The color of yellow pine is yellowish brown with an uneven grain.
Tree Size: 65-115 ft (20-30 m) tall, 2-3 ft (.6-1 m) trunk diameter,
Average Dried Weight: 35 lbs/ft3 (570 kg/m3) – 41 lbs/ft3 (655 kg/m3)
Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC): .47, .57, .54, .66
Janka Hardness: 690 lbf (3,070 N), 760 lbf (3,380 N), 870 lbf (4,120 N)
Modulus of Rupture: 13,100 lbf/in2 (90.3 MPa), 16,300 lbf/in2 (112.4 MPa)
Elastic Modulus: 1,750,000 lbf/in2 (12.10 GPa), 1,980,000 lbf/in2 (13.70 GPa)
Crushing Strength: 7,270 lbf/in2 (50.1 MPa), 8,140 lbf/in2 (56.1 MPa), 8,470 lbf/in2 (58.4 MPa)
Shrinkage: Radial: 4.6%, Tangential: 7.7%, Volumetric: 12.3%, T/R Ratio: 1.7, Radial: 5.4%, Tangential: 7.6%, Volumetric: 12.1%, T/R Ratio: 1.4
Drying: The drying method depends on the size of the wood. Any wood that is 1” in width (such as that used for siding) will be kiln dried. Any lumber that is over 2” wide will be air dried. Pecky Cypress is can be bought air dried or kiln dried. It requires 6 months of air drying before being kiln dried. It is important not to over dry cypress in the ovens because the outside will dry easily, and the interior will be moisture which causes faster cracking.
Workability: Yellow Pine is easy to work with. All types of tools are
Sustainable: Pine grows rapidly and is thus a very sustainable option. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) does not list yellow pine in its appendices. The International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List of Threatened Species (IUCN) list yellow pine as a species of least concern.
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